Selected chapters on astrophysics (NAST021)

This course is taught in winter semesters and consists of a few independent sub-courses which attempt to provide some insights into the state of the art knowledge in the respective branches of astrophysics or related scientific disciplines. In order to successfully pass the exam, students must complete a set of homeworks from all of the mandatory sub-courses of the given semester (in maroon below) and present the chosen methods and obtained (correct) results to the examiner (or the whole class) until June 30th of the given academic year. Any information sources are allowed (including consultations with the lecturers and other students). The grade is derived from the degree of correctness of the solutions. Students may enroll to this course repeatedly. In case of any (course concerning) inquiries, please contact Jaroslav Haas, preferably via email 'haas' (the strange symbol) ''.

Programme of the winter semester 2018/2019

On the outer solar atmosphere
Jaroslav Dudík (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov)

- in room TAU: Monday, October 22nd (13:10); Tuesday, October 23rd (10:40); Thursday, October 25th (14:50)
- slides & movies: 1, 2, 3, m1, m2, m3, m4
- exam homework: description
- topics covered in the individual lectures:

1) The solar corona - observations, diagnostics, and structures: why do we study the solar corona; observations of the corona in visible and (extreme, EUV) ultraviolet; optically thin emission, collisional ionization equilibrium, and temperature diagnostics; the coronal heating problem, energy requirements, relation to magnetic field; structures within the EUV corona: coronal loops and moss; thermal structure and evolution of coronal loops; forward-modeling of coronal emission; thermal instability of coronal loops; geometrical considerations: cross-field structure of coronal loops
2) Solar flares in EUV and X-rays - recent results and advances: what is a solar flare; how flares are observed; standard (CSHKP) solar flare model in 2D; recent observations consistent with the 2D model: reconnection inflow and outflow; tether-cutting reconnection as a mechanism triggering solar flares and eruptions; origin of flare plasma: chromospheric evaporation; three-dimensional reconnection in a magnetic null-point, late phase of solar flares; three-dimensional reconnection without null-points: quasi-separatrix layers, standard solar flare model in 3D; slipping reconnection as the tether-cutting mechanism; new types of reconnection in three dimensions
3) Optically thin solar spectra out of equilibrium: atomic processes: excitation, de-excitation, ionization, and recombination; statistical equilibrium and classical spectral synthesis for collisionally dominated plasma; the case for non-equilibrium: rapid processes in solar atmosphere; non-equilibrium ionization (NEI): heating and cooling; non-equilibrium ionization in the presence of flows: hydrodynamic models of coronal loops; nanoflare storms and NEI; departures from Maxwellian distribution: non-thermal plasma with high-energy tails; spectral synthesis in non-Maxwellian conditions; diagnostics of non-Maxwellian distributions from line spectra; integrating NEI and non-Maxwellians

Introduction to gamma-ray burst astrophysics
Jakub Řípa (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague)

- in room TAU: Tuesday, October 30th (10:40); Thursday, November 8th (13:10); Tuesday, November 27th (10:40); Tuesday, December 4th (10:40)
- slides: 1, 2, 3, 4
- exam homework: description, data file
- abstract:

This lecture gives introduction to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and covers the following topics: discovery; prompt gamma-ray emission - temporal and spectral properties; short vs long GRBs; instruments; localization techniques - coded mask, orientation-sensitive multiple detector technique, triangulation (IPN); spatial distribution of GRBs - testing homogeneity and isotropy; afterglow; host galaxies; association with SNe; redshift measurements; pseudo-redshifts; relativistic fireball model - particle acceleration, internal and external shocks, beaming; emission processes - synchrotron, inverse Compton, synchrotron self-Compton; gamma-ray polarization; polarization of afterglow emission; prompt optical emission; multi-wavelength afterglow observations; jet breaks; dark GRBs; orphan afterglows; progenitors - collapsars, mergers; simulations of collapsars, mergers, jets; kilonova; other possible types - short GRBs with extended emission, low-luminosity, ultra-long; soft-gamma repeaters - magnetars; tidal disruption events; correlations between spectral and temporal properties; cosmological probes - constraint of cosmological parameters; multi-messenger observations - UHECR, neutrinos, GW; probing star formation rate and reionization era; GRBs from Population III stars; tests of Lorentz invariance violation.

Astrophysics of gravitational wave sources
Ondřej Pejcha (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, Prague)

- in room TAU: Tuesday, November 13th (10:40); Tuesday, November 20th (10:40); Tuesday, December 11th (10:40)
- slides: 1, 2, 3
- exam homework: description
- topics covered in the individual lectures:

1) Evolution of single and binary stars to compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes)
2) Introduction to the physics of astronomical transients
3) Electromagnetic and multi-messenger signatures of the merger
Since the class touches upon a number of open problems in contemporary astrophysics, traditional teacher-centered instruction will be supplemented by more hands-on activities like order-of-magnitude calculations.

An introduction to gravitational microlensing
Hongsheng Zhao (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, UK)

- in room TAU: Wednesday, January 2nd (14:00-17:10); Thursday, January 3rd (13:10-14:40); Friday, January 4th (10:40-12:10)
- slides available upon request; further reading on this Wikipedia page
- optional homework: help to spread the knowledge by tidying up and/or enhancing the above Wikipedia page
- topics covered in the individual lectures:

1) I will cover the basics of light bending, motivate the calculations in Newtonian and Einsteinian frameworks
2) I will work out the applications of lensing and microlensing, and explain why we could constrain the dark matter using lensing and microlensing
3) I will cover details of microlensing by planets

Past years

10/2017 Anatoly Miroshnichenko (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA): The emerging variety of binary systems among objects with gas-and-dust envelopes - slides 1
10 & 11/2017 Rhys Taylor (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): The dark side of galaxy evolution - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11/2017 Robert Williams (Space Telescope Science Institute & Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA): Emission-line spectroscopy and analysis - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11 & 12/2017 Petr Brož (Institute of Geophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): Vulkanismus ve sluneční soustavě - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
12/2017 & 1/2018   Jörg Dabringhausen (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague): An introduction to dwarf galaxies - slides 1, 2, 3
1/2018 Michael Fellhauer (University of Concepción, Chile): The survival of star clusters - slides 1

11/2016 Douglas Heggie (University of Edinburgh, UK): Computation and astrophysics of the N-body problem - slides 1
11/2016 Jason Dexter (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany): The Galactic Centre black hole laboratory - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
12/2016 & 1/2017   Pavel Kroupa (University of Bonn, Germany; Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague): Modern advances in galactic astrophysics: from scale-invariant dynamics to a successful theory of galaxy formation and evolution - slides 1, 2, 3, 4

10 & 11/2015 Petr Kabáth (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov): Exoplanety - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11/2015 & 1/2016   Attila Mészáros (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague), Martin Jelínek (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov): Zábleskové zdroje záření gama - slides 1, 2
11 & 12/2015 Pavel Kroupa (University of Bonn, Germany): Stellar populations and star clusters as galactic building blocks - slides 1, 2, 3, 4

Very past years

říjen 2014 Frédéric Marin (AsÚ AVČR): Astrophysical polarimetry (prezentace 1., 2. a 3. část)
listopad 2014 Aleš Bezděk (AsÚ AVČR): Gravitační pole Země: nová pozorování a poznatky z umělých družic (prezentace)
prosinec 2014 Miroslav Bárta (AsÚ AVČR): Úvod do numerických metod řešení PDE a jejich aplikace v astrofyzice (prezentace)

říjen 2013 Brankica Šurlan (AsÚ AVČR): Hot massive star winds (články 1, 2, 3, ZIP) - prezentace 1., 2., 3. a 4. část
listopad 2013 Lukáš Shrbený (prezentace), Pavel Koten (prezentace), Jiří Borovička (prezentace) (AsÚ AVČR): Meteory
prosinec 2013 Jiří Svoboda (AsÚ AVČR): Jak se pozorují černé díry? (prezentace 1, 2, 3, 4)

říjen 2012 Petr Scheirich (AsÚ AVČR): Binární planetky (prezentace)
listopad 2012 Ondřej Čadek (Katedra geofyziky MFF UK): Slapové zahřívání a termální vývoj měsíců velkých planet (prezentace 1., 2., 3. a 4. část)
prosinec 2012 Pavel Jáchym (AsÚ AVČR): Úvod do milimetrové interferometrie (prezentace)

říjen 2011 Marco Delbo (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice): Asteroids in Thermal Infrared (prezentace)
listopad 2011 Tomáš Pecháček (AsÚ AVČR): O třech statistických metodách (abstrakt, příklad ke zkoušce: zadání, data)
prosinec 2011 Adam Růžička (AsÚ AVČR): Genetické algoritmy

říjen 2010 David Čapek (AsÚ AVČR): Tepelné jevy v meteoroidech (prezentace 1., 2., 3. část )
listopad 2010 Richard Wünsch (AsÚ AVČR): Hydrodynamické simulace mezihvězdné hmoty (materiály k přednášce)
prosinec 2010 Michal Dovčiak (AsÚ AVČR): Aktivní galaktická jádra z pohledu rentgenové astrofyziky (materiály k přednášce: 1. část, 2. část, 3. část).

říjen 2009 Marek Abramowicz (Göteborg University, Sweden and Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw, Poland): The black hole accretion (syllabus, naskenované poznámky z přednášek laskavě poskytl Ondřej Kopáček)
listopad 2009 Jiří Krtička (Masarykova univerzita, Brno): Hvězdný vítr (prezentace)
prosinec 2009  Vladimír Kopecký (FÚ UK): Astrobiologie (materiály ke stažení)

prosinec 2008 Michael Prouza (FÚ AVČR): Astrofyzika vysokých energií (prezentace 1. část, 2. část, doplňující materiály: astročásticová fyzika – ASPERA roadmap, kosmické záření – přehled, detekce nejenergetičtějších gama fotonů, oscilace neutrin, přímá detekce temné hmoty)
listopad 2008 Pavel Jáchym (AÚ AVČR): Kupy galaxií (prezentace 1., 2., 3. část )
říjen 2008 Michal Švanda (AÚ UK): Sluneční dynamo a fyzika konvektivní zóny (prezentace jsou vystaveny mezi materiály k přednášce Sluneční fyzika)

prosinec 2007 Teorie fotometrických a spektroskopických pozorování (Petr Škoda, AsÚ AVČR, prezentace 1. a 2. část) a ukázky zpracování v programu IRAF (Adéla Kawka, AsÚ AVČR; Marie Hrudková, AÚ UK)
listopad 2007 Miroslav Brož (AÚ UK): Tepelné jevy na planetkách
říjen 2007 Jakub Haloda (Česká geologická služba): Meteority – klasifikace, metody výzkumu a význam pro studium vzniku a vývoje těles sluneční soustavy (sylabus, přednáška)

prosinec 2006Adéla Kawka (AsÚ AVČR): White dwarfs
listopad 2006Jana Kašparová (AsÚ AVČR): Urychlené částice z pohledu sluneční rentgenové emise (1., 2., 3. a 4. část prezentace)
říjen 2006 Rene Goosmann (AsÚ AVČR): Active Galactic Nuclei and Galactic black holes in brief (abstrakt)

květen 2006 Michal Švanda (AsÚ AVČR & AÚ UK): Roztřeseným pohledem na jinak obyčejnou hvězdu za humny (prezentace, část o vývoji Slunce v budoucnosti, populární a přehledný text o helioseismologii, podrobný a více fyzikální text o helioseismologii a Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., 2002: Helioseismology, Reviews of Modern Physics, 74(4), 1073-1129)
duben 2006 Cyril Ron (AsÚ AVČR): Rotace Země její sledování (prezentace 1. a 2. část)
březen 2006 Marek Vandas (AsÚ AVČR): Sluneční vítr a heliosféra (sylabus)

prosinec 2005   David Heyrovský (ÚTF MFF UK): Gravitační čočky na mnoho způsobů (PDF ve velkém a malém rozlišení). Pro další studium je doporučen text R. Narayana a M. Bartelmanna, jenž je ke stažení na webu MPA v Garchingu.
listopad 2005 Bruno Jungwiert (AsÚ AVČR): Koevoluce galaxií a masivních černých děr
říjen 2005 Aleš Bezděk (AsÚ AVČR): Fyzika svrchní atmosféry a její výzkum pomocí umělých družic